Conservation in the news: 3-9 October 2016

Conservation Watch’s round-up of the week’s news on national parks, protected areas and conservation in the Global South.

For regular updates, follow @conserwatch on Twitter.

3 October 2016

A Virtuous Cycle for Conservation
By Arancha Gonalez and John E. Scanlon, Project Syndicate, 3 October 2016
Poor and rural people around the world rely on plants and animals for shelter, food, income, and medicine. In fact, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 15) on sustainable ecosystems acknowledges many developing societies’ close relationship with nature when it calls for increased “capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.” But how is this to be achieved?
The 1975 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) provides a viable framework for reducing poverty while also conserving nature. It regulates the harvesting and exchange of more than 35,000 wildlife species across a range of locales.

The World Votes to Keep Rhino Horn Sales Illegal
By Jani Actman, National Geographic, 3 October 2016
Some conservationists are breathing a sigh of relief: The prohibition of sales of rhino horns across borders that has been in force since 1977 will remain in place.
A proposal that would have lifted the ban was rejected Tuesday by the parties to the Convention of the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the global wildlife trade treaty composed of 182 nations and the European Union. Government representatives have gathered in Johannesburg for a two week conference to set international wildlife trade policy.

Botswana: Wildlife Crimes Impedes SADC Region’s Conservation Efforts
By Lorato Gaofise, Daily News, 3 October 2016
The current surge in poaching and illegal trade in wildlife products poses a significant risk to the SADC region’s conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and to social and economic development.
This was said by Namibia’s World Wildlife Fund Trans boundary Conservation Planning Advisor, Dr Russell Taylor, during a panel discussion at the 17th Conference of the Parties (CoP17) to Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wildlife Fauna and Flora (CITES) in Johannesburg, South Africa, on Sunday.

Costa Rica and Sea Shepherd at odds again over failed turtle conservation effort
By Michael Krumholtz, The Tico Times, 3 October 2016
A failed project that aimed to protect sea turtles has led to another disastrous discord between the provocative conservation group Sea Shepherd and the Costa Rican government.
After a month working on the Operation Jairo II campaign, volunteers were booted from Jacó beach on the central Pacific coast when authorities found the group was working without permits.
The group’s Central American spokesman Jorge Serendero told The Tico Times the turtle rescue campaign named after murdered Costa Rican conservationist Jairo Mora was meant to be “low profile,” meaning the government wasn’t supposed to be involved.

[India] Size matters: Tigers survive better in larger areas research says
By Mihika Basu, Bangalore Mirror, 3 October 2016
The probability of survival of the big cats in protected areas even as big as 540 square km is barely 40%, and almost 85% of their protected areas in tropical dry forests are smaller.
While disappearing tiger populations have been a cause of major worry, analysis now shows that tigers have survived better in larger protected areas across all habitat types in the country. The researchers focused their analysis on a tropical dry forest as such forest areas constitute the largest habitat for tigers.

Is this the worst taxidermy ever? Unusual looking tiger seized in Indonesian wildlife raid
By Leith Huffadine, Daily Mail, 3 October 2016
Images have emerged of what may be the world’s worst taxidermy job.
It’s believed the tiger found in Indonesia may have been seized as a part of raids to stamp out the smuggling and illegal trading of wildlife in places like Southeast Asia.
Indonesian police with Jakarta Animal Aid Network and the Wildlife Conservation Society seized tiger skins and other illegal animal parts during raids on September 23 in west Java.

[Nepal] Mobile app introduced for red panda conservation
Kathmandu Post, 3 October 2016
A mobile app is being introduced in the mission to contain the growing incidents of smuggling of the endangered red panda.
The mobile app will be used in the effort for conserving and monitoring the red panda population in Ilam, Paancthar and Taplejung.
The forest rangers have been instructed to download the red pandas’ habitat, its trail, photos and other details into the app and share it with central office of the Red Panda Network, Nepal. The mobile app will come into use only at the jungles where the endangered species is found.

World Habitat Day: Joining Forces with Nicaragua’s Indigenous Rama and Afro-descendant Kriol People
By Global Wildlife Conservation, National Geographic, 3 October 2016
Deep in the rainforests of Nicaragua’s beautiful Indio Maíz Biological Reserve, the indigenous Rama and afro-descendant Kriol people are resolutely fighting for their culture and traditions, which are increasingly threatened by the brazen destruction of the forest by land-grabbing cattle ranchers and land traffickers.
The 2,639-square-kilometer [about 1,000 square miles] Indio Maíz Biological Reserve lies in the southeastern corner of Nicaragua, and is the core area of the Río San Juan Biosphere Reserve. The Rama Indians have lived here for hundreds of years, and together with the afro-descendant Kriol peoples jointly hold a communal title to approximately 70 percent of Indio Maíz. These communities depend on healthy ecosystems to provide foods, palms for building their houses and crafting traditional bows and arrows, and trees to build the dugout canoes they depend on for transportation.

Sierra Leone News : Conservation Society SL Celebrate 30th Anniversary
By Jeneba V. Kabba, Awareness Times, 3 October 2016
he Conservation Society of Sierra Leone (CSSL) has on Thursday 29th September 2016, celebrated at their head office Kings Street, Congo Cross Freetown, their 30th working year in the country.
Board President Mr. Charles Showers, in giving the overview, said CSSL is a national non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1986, and CSSL is committed to the conservation and management of Sierra Leone’s natural habitats and wildlife. He added that membership of CSSL is open to the general public; membership includes people from many different backgrounds who are passionate about nature.
“Our mission is to promote the wise use and conservation of Sierra Leone’s natural resources so that wildlife and people will benefit.”

Q&A: Extreme Drought in South Africa’s Kruger National Park: How is Wildlife Faring?
By Cheryl Lyn Dybas, National Geographic, 3 October 2016
Bone-dry winds are blowing across South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP), uprooting savanna grasses and whirling them like tumbleweeds across a sere landscape.
How is the park’s world-renowned wildlife faring in an extreme drought? Izak Smit, Science Manager for Systems Ecology at South African National Parks (SANParks), which oversees KNP, has insights.

[South Africa] Conservation management in action: Saving the Cape mountain zebra
By Ra-ees Moerat, Traveller24, 3 October 2016
The success story of the Cape Mountain Zebra, recently de-registered at the CITES CoP17 from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species has received yet another boost with the a Cape Nature population management project.
The first Cape mountain zebra capture took place from the 19 to the 22 of September, in and around De Hoop Nature reserve in the Overberg region as part of the project aimed at improving the resilience and growth of the Western Cape species.

4 October 2016

World wildlife talks end with tighter conservation rules
AFP, 4 October 2016
A global conference on wildlife trade wrapped up on Tuesday after adopting a slew of decisions to curb rampant trafficking of threatened species such as sharks and pangolins.
Officials and conservationists meeting under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) have been gathered in Johannesburg for the past 11 days seeking to toughen restrictions on the trade of species nearing extinction.
While the negotiations at times exposed bitter divisions — with African nations at one point accusing Western charities of “dictating” how to protect their elephants — campaigners hailed increased protection for hundreds of plant and animal species.

Q&A: Bushmeat Trade Threatens Wildlife and People
By Jani Actman, National Geographic, 4 October 2016
From rats to monkeys, all kinds of wild animals in Africa are poached for their meat.
The rural poor in Africa have long consumed bushmeat for subsistence. But recent years have brought an increase in the amount of bushmeat sold to markets in urban areas, much of it from larger, slow breeding species such as monkeys. Some bushmeat is even sent across borders.
The bushmeat trade threatens vulnerable animals, but it also poses a threat to people— wildlife can spread viruses to humans, including HIV and Ebola.

[India] Blackbuck mowed down in Chennai’s Guindy National Park, activists ask how car was let in
By Pheba Mathew, The News Minute, 4 October 2016
A 60-year-old man mowed down a young male blackbuck, considered an endangered animal at the Raj Bhavan in Chennai near the Guindy National Park on Saturday.
Blackbucks are included in Section 1 under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, providing absolute protection to the species.
Sources in Guindy National Park (GNP) say KRS Ananthakumar, the suspect in the case, had attended a wedding anniversary of an assistant section officer at the Raj Bhavan on Saturday. While he was returning from the celebration, he hit a blackbuck with his vehicle around 6:45pm. The blackbuck died immediately.

[India] Villages volunteering to relocate from wildlife protection areas will be compensated: Naveen Patnaik
The Indian Express, 4 October 2016
Chief Minister of Odisha Naveen Patnaik on Tuesday announced to make provision of compensation for villages that volunteer to relocate in the interest of wildlife protection.
“I am happy to announce that the state government will provide compensation for villages that volunteer to relocate in interest of the protection of wildlife area,” Patnaik said while addressing a function marking the 62nd State Level Wildlife Week celebration in Bhubaneswar.

[India] Jammu and Kashmir govt relaxes Protected Area Permit in Leh Ladakh, encourages tourism
F. India, 4 October 2016
Jammu and Kashmir government has relaxed the Protected Area Permit (PAP) regime to enable foreigners to visit restricted areas in Leh district of Ladakh, a decision which is expected to increase the footfall of tourists and give considerable boost to the local economy.
With this decision, foreign tourists would now be permitted to visit a number of unexplored areas like Panamik, Phukpochey, Hargam, Taksha, Sasoma, Chaglung, Kobet, Aranu, Khemi, Warshi, including Yarma Gompa/ Yarma Gonbo Monastery of the Nubra Valley in Leh.

[India] Six arrested for illegal activities in Bhitarkanika national park
The Hindu, 4 October 2016
Stepping up vigil on human interference in Bhitarkanika national park here, the Forest personnel have arrested six people for illegally collecting fuel wood and crabs in the crocodile habitation corridors.
While five of them were arrested near Kalabhanjadia creek on the charge of felling mangrove species and collecting fuel wood, a crab catcher was arrested near Khola river ghat, an official said, adding that the arrests were made on Saturday last.
While two motorised crafts for smuggling the fuel wood were seized by the Forest patrolling team in the first incident, 25 kg mud crabs were seized from the possession of the arrested in the second incident, Forest Range Officer Akshyaya Kumar Nayak said.

New Hope for Indonesia’s Pangolins and Helmeted Hornbills on World Animal Day
By Ratri M. Siniwi, Jakarta Globe, 4 October 2016
While the world celebrated World Animal Day on Tuesday (04/10), 2,500 delegates from around the globe continued the fight for wildlife conservation at the 17th Conference of Parties of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES, in Johannesburg, South Africa.
CITES has been the largest conference on trade controls for 500 endangered species of flora and fauna around the world.
So far, the conference saw several items of good news, such as a global ban on the world’s most traded mammal, pangolins.

[Indonesia] The role of villages in forest conservation programs
By Edi Purwanto and Soren Moestrup, The Jakarta Post, 4 October 2016
Village Law No. 6/2014 substantially strengthens the position of villages in the government hierarchy. Villages are no longer in a subordinate position under (sub) district government, but self-governing entities, like small states that have clear boundaries of jurisdiction and authority over the community and natural resources.
Villages have rights and responsibilities to manage and administer the needs and interests within their areas of jurisdiction. Therefore, the village has been acknowledged as a unique entity, with social and cultural values and local wisdom embedded in its origins (principle of recognition).

[Mexico] Volunteers watch over monarchs’ reserve
Mexico News Daily, 4 October 2016
More than 1,500 volunteers are helping to keep illegal loggers from felling trees in the national protected area of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in the states of México and Michoacán.
In order to protect the forests and the monarch butterflies’ winter habitat, the federal government has implemented permanent surveillance by the National Gendarmerie and Army and Navy personnel who coordinate their monitoring with 1,650 community watchmen belonging to 85 Environmental Surveillance Committees.

5 October 2016

Unpacking CITES CoP17: The wins and the losses
EIA, 5 October 2016
After years of anticipation, months of preparation and two hectic weeks in South Africa, the 17th Conference of the Parties (CoP17) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) draws to a close.
A team of EIA campaigners has been in Johannesburg to present the findings of our investigations and to press for better protections and enforcement.
Here they give a summary of some of the key outcomes of the conference.

CITES: Divisions leave elephants vulnerable to extinction
By Harriet Constable, Geographical, 5 October 2016
Over 110,000 elephants have been killed in the last decade, following a steep rise in poaching, with one killed for its ivory every 15 minutes according to iworry, a campaign by conservation organisation The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust.
Despite the critical situation for the species, the 182 member countries of the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) were unable to agree on a proposal for further protection.
The proposal, submitted by 29 members making up the African Elephant Coalition (AEC) – including Kenya, Uganda and Gabon – called for all elephant populations in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe to be up-listed to Appendix I, thus providing all African elephants full protection.

The ban on rhino horn sales leaves open the question of conservation funding
By Keith Somerville, The Conversation, 5 October 2016
Swaziland’s proposal to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) to be able to trade in rhino horn has been decisively defeated. Member states at Cop17 overwhelmingly rejected the mountain kingdom’s request to be allowed to sell its stocks of rhino horn and small annual quantities of horn from natural morality.
Swaziland, which is home to 73 white rhino and an estimated 18 black rhino, wanted to use funds from the sale to increase conservation measures and provide incentives for local people to give their support to the efforts.

Natural Partners: integrating development and environment to deliver sustainable development
Zoological Society of London, 5 October 2016
Together with development, environment and business leaders, this event will discuss how the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can be used to balance human development needs with environmental sustainability. It will showcase examples of sustainable development projects based on good natural resource management from around the world, and speakers will contribute to a panel discussion on how the environment, development and private sectors can work together to achieve their joint aims.

A Systems Thinker Uses Market Forces to Strengthen Environmental Conservation
By Timothy Brown, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 5 October 2016
Guillermo Castilleja has been described as a “true systems thinker,” something he says he developed while at F&ES. In an interview, Castilleja, a senior fellow at the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, shares his vision for the foundation, his advice to students, and where he finds hope as a conservationist.
Guillermo Castilleja ’83 M.F.S., ’91 Ph.D. has been described as a “true systems thinker,” something he says he developed during his time at F&ES working under F&ES Prof. Herb Bormann. Systems thinking, Castilleja says, has been key in his work both as a scientist and in his current role as senior fellow at the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation where he oversees strategy and serves as special advisor to the president. Previously, he was chief program officer of environmental conservation initiatives, which account for the lion’s share of the $6.5 billion private foundation.

Conservation decisions rely on balancing incentives with unpredictable variables
ScienceDaily, 5 October 2016
If you own land, as long as it’s not bound up in a legal restriction, you’ve got options. You might decide to convert it into farm land. You might develop it. You could decide to wait and see if the land increases in value. Or you could accept a temporary contract that sets it aside for conservation, or a more permanent one that binds you to never develop it. University of Illinois environmental economists examined some of the aspects of this conundrum.
“Developing land for intensive agriculture is in all practicality an irreversible decision. To convert, say, a palm oil plantation in Indonesia back to being a national forest, would be so costly that it is functionally irreversible,” says Amy Ando.

Has hope become the most endangered species in conservation?
By Jeremy Hance, The Guardian, 5 October 2016
Want to hear a sad story? You could read this article of mine about the first mammal lost to climate change. Or this one about how there are only 60 vaquita left on the planet. Or here’s my piece on how forest elephants are being decimated even as scientists debate if they are worthy of being called a distinct species. As an environmental journalist, I sometimes feel it’s my job to simply document the decline of life on planet Earth. The word ‘depressing’ doesn’t even begin to describe it.

Hydropower threatens Bolivian indigenous groups and national park
By Eduardo Franco Berton,, 5 October 201
Waldo Valer Salas, our expedition guide, launched two firecrackers in the air, producing a loud echo that reverberated in the rainforest. That was the only way to announce the arrival of the Mongabay Latam reporting team.
After a few minutes a motorized canoe, or peque, approached us at full speed on the Beni River. The crew was looking for us. Meanwhile, a group of macaws flew overhead, and a dozen squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) watched us intently from the trees. We boarded the canoe and five minutes later a large group of men, women, and children appeared; they were indigenous Tsimané and Mosetén people from the Torewa community. They had come to welcome us.

UPM Raflatac supports Brazil Reforestation Project
Graphic Repro On-line, 5 October 2016
The Atlantic Forest that hugs the coastal areas of Brazil is one of the country’s most environmentally threatened biomes. UPM Raflatac is pleased to announce it will be contributing to the protection of this vital ecosystem by partnering on
a one-hectare reforestation project of the Jaguari River. UPM Raflatac has teamed up with the Prefeitura Municipal de Jaguariúna, Ambev, The Nature Conservancy, Associação Mata Ciliar, Embrapa-Meio Ambiente, Agência das Bacias PCJ and Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) for this reforestation project along a Permanent Protection Area of the Jaguari River in the city of Jaguariúna, where UPM Raflatac Brazil is headquartered and operates a terminal supporting the South American market. The project will kick-off on Wednesday, 5 October with a special tree planting event to be attended by UPM Raflatac employees and local students.

[India] Royal Bengal Tiger dies in Sanjay Gandhi National Park
The Indian Express, 5 October 2016
A 13-year-old Royal Bengal tiger inhabiting the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in suburban Borivali died of age-related ailments. The feline, named Palash, died Tuesday, veterinarian Dr Shailesh Pethe said. Palash had been on saline for four days, but chances of its survival were grim due to renal failure, the doctor said. Tiger, being a carnivorous animal, consumes high amount of protein. Renal failure is common among such animals in old age. The tigers in protected areas generally live up to 16 years, Pethe said.

6 October 2016

Securing Land Rights Delivers Billions in Climate Benefit Says New WRI Analysis
Blue & Green Tomorrow, 6 October 2016
Indigenous Peoples are dependent on their lands for water, food and livelihoods. However, around the world, only 10 percent of Indigenous and community lands are held under secure tenure.
On October 6, WRI will launch a new report, Climate Benefits, Tenure Costs: The Economic Case for Securing Indigenous Land Rights, which finds for the first time that relatively modest investments in secure land tenure for Indigenous Peoples can generate billions of dollars in returns—economically and environmentally.

The ‘big five’ calls at wildlife summit
AFP, 6 October 2016
The global conference on wildlife trade wrapped up this week by adopting a slew of decisions to curb trafficking of threatened species.
Officials and conservationists met under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species banner in Johannesburg seeking to toughen restrictions on the trade of species nearing extinction.
While the negotiations at times exposed bitter divisions – with African nations at one point accusing Western charities of “dictating” how to protect their elephants – campaigners hailed increased protection for hundreds of plant and animal species.

[Kenya] Emotional walk as city residents bid national park ‘farewell’
By Gilbert Koech, The Star, 6 October 2016
The next two months may be your last chance to visit the Nairobi National Park, before what is described as its “slow death” begins.
In two weeks time, President Uhuru Kenyatta will launch the second phase of the Standard Gauge Railway to Naivasha which, if it passes through the park, will change it forever.
Established in 1946, Nairobi National Park’s acreage has remained intact with the animals confined in 117.21 square kilometres ( 28,963 acres). Until now.
Conservationists calculate that the SGR will be the killer punch in a series of hard blows the park has received of late.

[Philippines] Tribesmen ask Duterte to stop road, dam projects at Sierra Madre range
By Jonathan L. Mayuga Business Mirror, 6 October 2016
Leave Sierra Madre alone. This was the call of tribal leaders to President Duterte, who was asked to stop at least three major development projects in the Sierra Madre area.
The projects are the Ilagan-Divilacan Road in Isabela, the Centenial Dam in Quezon and the Diduyon Dam in Nueva Vizcaya.

[South Africa] Feasting lions cause major traffic in Kruger National Park
By Poelano Malema, East Coast Radio, 6 October 2016
That’s what happened recently in the Kruger National Park, but it wasn’t just one lion that was having lunch, but a pride of 15 lions. And, as expected, that caused major chaos on the road, with visitors waiting for hours before they could continue with their journey.
“On the 31st August 2016, a pride of 15 odd lion decided to kill and devour a buffalo, in the middle of the road in the Kruger National Park,” the YouTube video description says. “What occurred for the next six hours was nothing short of chaos! People off-roading, getting stuck, getting out, shouting, hooting, fighting, laughing, but with a bit of patience, the sighting of a lifetime.”

Hunting, not deforestation, biggest threat to Southeast Asian biodiversity: Study
By Mike Gaworecki,, 6 October 2016
Deforestation and forest degradation are typically considered to be the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, but a new study finds that hunting is “by far” the most severe immediate threat to the survival of Southeast Asia’s endangered vertebrates.
The authors of the study, published last month in the journal Conservation Biology, examined the impacts of hunting on vertebrate populations in the region by conducting an extensive review of scientific papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. They found evidence that animal populations have declined sharply at multiple sites across Southeast Asia since 1980, with many species now completely wiped out in substantial portions of their former ranges.

7 October 2016

Thousands of Illegally Traded Wild Animals Put at Risk by Missing Data
By Shreya Dasgupta, Pacific Standard, 7 October 2016
Data on illegal wildlife trade collected by enforcement agencies is riddled with gaps, concludes a new report by the University of Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) and World Animal Protection.
Between 2010 and 2014, more than 64,000 live wild animals belonging to 359 species were seized by authorities, according to the trade database of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). But only 54 countries party to the CITES reported seizures, researchers found, while 128 countries did not report any illegal wildlife trade, researchers write in the report published in Nature Conservation.

8 October 2016

Jalapao now largest protected area in Brazil’s Cerrado
Agencia Brasil, 8 October 2016
With an area close to 3 million hectares, Jalapao has become the largest protected region in the Cerrado, Brazil’s tropical savanna. Mosaico do Jalapao, as it is officially known, was recognized in a document enacted by the government Friday (Sep. 30), and comprises conservation units in the states of Bahia and Tocantins.
“The biodiversity in the Cerrado is huge, and when these [conservation] units are brought together, they become stronger,” said Rosangela Nicolau, environmental analyst at the Environment Ministry.

[India] Forest department honours conservation work
By Sumita Sarkar, The Times of India, 8 October 2016
The forest department on Friday awarded individuals, villages and non-government organisations (NGOs) for their outstanding contributing to wildlife conservation.
The forest department held the initiative on account of Wildlife Week being observed from October 1-7.
The Sant Tukaram Award at the district level was also given to villages that have been involved in conservation of forests and wildlife. Vinshi village from the Kalwan taluka was awarded the first prize of Rs 51,000 for excellent joint forest management committee (JFMC) work.

Best Of Wildlife Park In Nigeria
NTA, 8 October 2016
A National Park is meant to preserve wildlife for tourism and documentation. The Nigeria National Park Service (NNPS), a federal government parastatal under the ministry of environment, is responsible for preserving, enhancing, protecting and managing vegetation and wild animals in the national parks of Nigeria.
Nigeria is blessed with natural resources and great ecosystem to sustain such investments to boost tourism opportunities in the country.
The first national park was Kainji Lake, established by former Head of State and President, Olusegun Obasanjo in 1979. The National Parks Governing Board and five new National Parks were set up in 1991.

9 October 2016

Africa must not become one big game park
By Patrick Bergin (African Wildlife Foundation), The Guardian, 9 October 2016
Around the world, people are looking to the recent meeting in Johannesburg of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species to help end the elephant and rhino poaching crisis. This hope is misplaced.
The convention is, by definition, about legal trade in endangered species. It determines what species of animals and plants can be traded by law-abiding nations and citizens. The poaching crisis, conversely, is about illegal trade and is driven by individuals and entities that are not bothered by the niceties of law, much less relatively toothless international conventions. (This is not to say that Cites is irrelevant to the poaching crisis. Sadly, Cites has an important and unfortunate indirect impact on illegal trade by creating conditions and sending messages to the marketplace that inadvertently help promote a parallel, illegal trade.)

Tanzania: National Park Counts Loss in Serengeti Fire
The Citizen, 9 October 2016
Serengeti National Park (Senapa) administration block at Fort Ikoma has been burnt to the ground.
The source of the fire was yet to be established. Most office equipment and documents were destroyed by the fire as workers were able to recover only few from the burning building.
Senapa chief conservationist William Mwakilema said through the phone from Moshi where he is attending a meeting that the fire happened yesterday at around 11am.

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